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#101 TigerChamp

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Posted 03 February 2015 - 01:03 PM

The thing that makes my head almost pop thinking about it is, think about how **** far away that is, and the hugeness of it for us to be able to see it at that size. It's an almost unimaginably gigantic, yet invisible... thing.

 

Apparently our current night sky blows thanks to technology, and people just a few hundred years ago and less could see the Milky Way with the naked eye. I think there are some remote places where this is still slightly possible.

I grew up in a town that had near perfect conditions and on some nights in the bush where there are no lights for miles in any direction, not only could you see the milky way, It would appear to convey depth it was so clear.


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#102 chons

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Posted 03 February 2015 - 01:12 PM

I grew up in a town that had near perfect conditions, on some nights in the bush where there are no lights for miles in any direction, and not only could you see the milky way, It would appear to convey depth it was so clear.

**** you in the nicest way possible. I am very jealous. :D


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#103 crangs

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Posted 04 February 2015 - 12:33 AM

The thing that makes my head almost pop thinking about it is, think about how **** far away that is, and the hugeness of it for us to be able to see it at that size. It's an almost unimaginably gigantic, yet invisible... thing.

 

Apparently our current night sky blows thanks to technology, and people just a few hundred years ago and less could see the Milky Way with the naked eye. I think there are some remote places where this is still slightly possible.

in the top gear special they just did in Argentina they showed pics of the night sky as they were in such an isolated part of the Andes where there was no light pollution at all.  **** was absolutely stunning all round.  Truly beautiful


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#104 TigerChamp

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Posted 04 February 2015 - 12:35 AM

in the top gear special they just did in Argentina they showed pics of the night sky as they were in such an isolated part of the Andes where there was no light pollution at all.  **** was absolutely stunning all round.  Truly beautiful

Apparently the Andes is pretty much the best place to stargaze because of the altitude and lack of light pollution.

 

Stunning


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#105 crangs

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Posted 04 February 2015 - 12:37 AM

Apparently the Andes is pretty much the best place to stargaze because of the altitude and lack of light pollution.

 

Stunning

With the mountains, lakes and stars all at their best it just made me wish I was in that spot to see it in person.  Nature too stronk


Edited by crangs, 04 February 2015 - 12:42 AM.

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#106 chons

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Posted 09 February 2015 - 08:51 AM

Side view of galaxy NGC 7814, taken by Hubble Telescope

 

s0lhz14xs7yaqdkffx1o.jpg


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#107 chons

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Posted 10 February 2015 - 11:09 AM

Closeup shot of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, from the Rosetta mission.

 

rosetta_67p_feb32015.jpg.CROP.original-o


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#108 TigerChamp

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:04 AM

temperature-bbc.png?resize=660%2C2990


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#109 TigerChamp

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:13 AM

SDSS-J1038-4849.jpg?resize=660%2C528

 

gravitational lensing smiley face


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#110 TigerChamp

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:15 AM

What-Are-the-Odds.jpg?resize=660%2C2324


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#111 crangs

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:17 AM

What-Are-the-Odds.jpg?resize=660%2C2324

lol, that is is boss level nerdginnery


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#112 TigerChamp

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:23 AM

1508990_1036785866342424_818315863295503


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#113 Bubba_Sparks

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:25 AM

What-Are-the-Odds.jpg?resize=660%2C2324

Hmm, stuff like that makes me wonder if it really was by chance?


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#114 Bubba_Sparks

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:26 AM

temperature-bbc.png?resize=660%2C2990

I love stuff like this - keep posting, thanks!


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#115 TigerChamp

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:28 AM

10993429_1036784313009246_50081717506898


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#116 crangs

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:31 AM

10993429_1036784313009246_50081717506898

Poor Pluto not even a real planet, lol :lol:


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#117 TigerChamp

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:32 AM

magnify-universe-numbers-****h.jpg?resiz


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#118 Bubba_Sparks

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:35 AM

Awesome.....

I have no pretty pictures, but I read once that our whole solar system compared to the galaxy is like a quarter compared to the size of USA.....big old place out there.

 

I highly recommend the book "Zoom"


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#119 crangs

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:37 AM

magnify-universe-numbers-****h.jpg?resiz

1401549435286.jpg


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#120 TigerChamp

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:40 AM

Awesome.....

I have no pretty pictures, but I read once that our whole solar system compared to the galaxy is like a quarter compared to the size of USA.....big old place out there.

 

I highly recommend the book "Zoom"

Ive posted this before but if you have a few minutes check it out. Its a more digestible version of the above infographic that is even more in depth. We are closer in size to the observable universe than we are to the smallest scale theoretical 

 

http://htwins.net/scale2/


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#121 Bubba_Sparks

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:46 AM

Ive posted this before but if you have a few minutes check it out. Its a more digestible version of the above infographic that is even more in depth. We are closer in size to the observable universe than we are to the smallest scale theoretical 

 

http://htwins.net/scale2/

Thanks man.  I'm using a lot of this material in a "talk" I'm doing in a week's time - greatly appreciated!


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#122 crangs

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 01:50 AM

Ive posted this before but if you have a few minutes check it out. Its a more digestible version of the above infographic that is even more in depth. We are closer in size to the observable universe than we are to the smallest scale theoretical 

 

http://htwins.net/scale2/

Whoever created that should be banging 10's and stacking paper to the ceiling. 


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#123 TigerChamp

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 03:03 AM

http://www.physics.o...etail.asp?id=41


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#124 chons

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 08:33 AM

Tweaking Bacteria, Scientists Turn Sunlight Into Liquid Fuel

Daniel Nocera's "artificial leaf" might get a boost from new research.

 

A few years ago, Daniel Nocera pioneered an "artificial leaf" that—just like the real thing—uses only the sun and water to produce energy. He touted the silicon cell as a breakthrough that could allow every home to become its own power station.

His compelling invention, a cheap wafer-thin device, attracted lots of publicity but hasn't quite taken off. The leaf works well, Nocera says, but there's a key flaw.

"The problem with the artificial leaf," Nocera says, is that "it makes hydrogen. You guys don't have an infrastructure to use hydrogen." (See related profile: "Daniel Nocera: Maverick Inventor of the Artificial Leaf.")

By "you guys," Nocera means the world outside the lab. Although Toyota and others companies are making cars built to run on hydrogen, emitting only water vapor, filling up is a problem: Most gas stations are set up to serve liquid fuel.

Storing the Sun

Enter Nocera's latest creation, a collaboration with biologists at Harvard University and detailed in theProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesMonday. The researchers created a specially engineered bacteria that can convert hydrogen (from the artificial leaf or another source) into alcohol-based fuel.

The Harvard researchers are aiming to solve a problem known to any electric utility: Capturing energy from the sun has come a long way, but how can it be stored for times when there's no sunlight? Going a step further, how can that stored energy be used for purposes other than electricity?

In natural photosynthesis, biomass is produced when sunlight meets with water and carbon dioxide. Another step is typically required to turn that biomass into fuel—breaking down corn to make ethanol, for example. (Take the quiz: "What You Don't Know About Biofuel.")

Instead, the researchers made a genetically modified bacterium that could bypass the biomass step and go straight to producing liquid fuel. Using the artificial leaf, they split water into oxygen and hydrogen. The special bacterium absorbed the hydrogen, combining it with carbon dioxide to produce isopropanol: an alcohol fuel comparable to ethanol.

The resulting system would look like an algae farm, Nocera says, except that the bacteria wouldn't need the continuous light or maintenance that algae require.

"Shocking" Finding

Nocera says his team also solved a problem that long bedeviled researchers working with bacteria and solar energy: The bacteria die. Keeping them alive requires high-voltage current, making the process far less efficient.

The culprit was known to be a type of molecule called reactive oxygen species, but the surprise lay in where they were coming from. When water split, the reactive oxygen species were coming out of thehydrogen side of the water splitting, not the oxygen side.

"We were shocked," Nocera says. "That confused us for a while." By pinpointing that problem, the Harvard researchers were able to produce fuel much more efficiently.

Despite the streamlined process, Nocera's system has quite a way to go before it's filling gas tanks.

John Turner, a research fellow who works on hydrogen energy at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, says the paper is "some very excellent science," but cautions that the Harvard researchers "are a long, long way from showing any commercial viability."

Aside from the energy needed to grow the microbes and eventually extract the fuel, Turner says, any system that needs carbon dioxide must get it from the atmosphere to be sustainable. "That," he says, "will be a very energy-intensive process."

Nocera acknowledges that his system needs to become more efficient. To start running it as an industry, he says, "we'd still have to do more science."

Still, Nocera says, the paper contains advances that apply to work other scientists are doing: "There's a lot of neat science in here that people will now be able to build on."

On Twitter: Follow Christina Nunez and get more environment and energy coverage at NatGeoGreen.

The story is part of a special series that explores energy issues. For more, visit The Great Energy Challenge.


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#125 chons

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Posted 16 February 2015 - 08:54 AM

Distant Species Produce Hybrid 60 Million Years After Their Split

 

Two distantly-related species that split 60 million years ago have produced an offspring on the forest floor of the French Pyrenees. We’re talking about ferns, but still, reuniting after such a long evolutionary breakup is roughly akin to an elephant hybridizing with a manatee, or us with a lemur, according to findings published in the March issue of American Naturalist

Reproducing after that long is impossible for most species of plants and animals: the genetic incompatibilities will have become too vast. It only takes a few million years to become reproductively unsuited to each other -- a key condition for the evolution of new species. Until now, the most extreme examples have been tree frogs making baby frogs 34 million years after splitting into separate lineages, and sunfish hybridizing after a 40-million-year split.

This new unlikely love child made its way into a nursery from the mountains of France. Once there, a team led by Carl Rothfels from the University of British Columbia (formerly of Duke) extracted DNA from its fronds to identify its parentage. Their analyses revealed that the pale hybrid fern, xCystocarpium roskamianum, comes from a cross between an oak fern and a fragile fern. "To most people they just look like two ferns, but to fern researchers these two groups look really different," Rothfels explains in a news release. While the two can both be found co-existing throughout the northern hemisphere, they stopped exchanging genes and diverged from each other around 60 million years ago.

The researchers think that the parent ferns remained compatible after calling it quits so long ago because ferns don’t rely on the birds and bees, literally. Fern sex, like many other living organisms, brings the sperm together with the eggs. But all they need are wind and water, whereas lots of other plants depend on an animal pollinator. These animals might, over time, become pickier about flower shape or size or some other trait. “It's tempting to think that there's something special about flowering plants that gives them a competitive advantage,” Rothfels adds, “but these results raise a different possibility.”

Since ferns don’t rely on animals in this way, reproductive incompatibility for them probably just evolves more slowly. That’s probably why there are way more flowering plant species than fern species -- even though the latter have been around so much longer, predating even dinosaurs. 


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#126 chons

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Posted 17 February 2015 - 06:40 AM

A DNA hard drive has been built that can store data for 1 MILLION years

Scientists have found a way to preserve the world's data for millions of years, by storing it on a tiny strand of DNA preserved in glass.

FIONA MACDONALD   17 FEB 2015
facebook_34.png11.ktwitter_34.png189email_34.png
 
 

When you think of humanity’s legacy, the most powerful message for us to leave behind for future civilisations would surely be our billions of terabytes of data. But right now the hard drives and discs that we use to store all this information are frustratingly vulnerable, and unlikely to survive more than a couple of hundred years.

Fortunately scientists have built a DNA time capsule that's capable of safely preserving all of our data for more than a million years. And we’re kind of freaking out over how huge the implications are. 

 

Researchers already knew that DNA was ideal for data storage. In theory, just 1 gram of DNA is capable of holding 455 exabytes, which is the equivalent of one billion gigabytes, and more than enough space to store all of Google, Facebook and pretty much everyone else's data.

Storing information on DNA is also surprisingly simple - researchers just need to program the A and C base pairs of DNA as a binary '0', and the T and G as a '1'. But the researchers, led by Robert Grass from ETH Zürich in Switzerland, wanted to find out just how long this data would last.

DNA can definitely be durable - in 2013 scientists managed to sequence genetic code from 700,000-year-old horse bones - but it has to be preserved in pretty specific conditions, otherwise it can change and break down as it's exposed to the environment. So Glass's team decided to try to replicate a fossil, to see if it would help them create a long-lasting DNA hard drive.

"Similar to these bones, we wanted to protect the information-bearing DNA with a synthetic 'fossil' shell," explained Grass in a press release.

In order to do that, the team encoded Switzerland’s Federal Charter of 1921 andThe Methods of Mechanical Theorems by Archimedes onto a DNA strand - a total of 83 kilobytes of data. They then encapsulated the DNA into tiny glass spheres, which were around 150 nanometres in diameter. 

The researchers compared these glass spheres against other packaging methods by exposing them to temperatures of between 60 and 70 degrees Celsius - conditions that replicated the chemical degradation that would usually occur over hundreds of years, all crammed into a few destructive weeks.

They found that even after this sped-up degradation process, the DNA inside the glass spheres could easily be extracted using a fluoride solution, and the data on it could still be read. In fact, these glass casings seem to work much like fossilised bones.

Based on their results, which have been published in Angewandte Chemie, the team predicts that data stored on DNA could survive over a million years if it was stored in temperatures below -18 degrees Celsius, for example, in a facility like theSvalbard Global Seed Vault, which is also known as the ‘Doomsday Vault’. They say it could last 2,000 years if stored somewhere less secure at 10 degrees Celsius - a similar average temperature to central Europe.

The tricky part of this whole process is that the data stored in DNA needs to be read properly in order for future civilisations to be able to access it. And despite advances in sequencing technology, errors still arise from DNA sequencing.

The team overcame this by embedding a method for correcting any errors within the glass spheres, based on the Reed-Solomon Codes, which help researchers transmit data over long distances. Basically, additional information is attached to the actual data, to help people read it on the other end.

This worked so well that even after the test DNA had been kept in scorching and degrading conditions for a month, the team could still read Switzerland’s Federal Charter and Archimedes’ wise words at the end of the study.

The other major problem, which is not so easy to overcome, is the fact that storing information on DNA is still extremely expensive - it cost around US$1,500 just to encode the 83 kilobytes of data used in this study. Hopefully this cost will go down as we get better at writing information onto DNA. Rsearchers out there are already storing books onto DNA, and the band OK Go are also writing their new album into genetic information.

The question is, what would Grass store, now that he’s developed this mind-blowing time capsule? The documents in Unesco’s Memory of the World Programme, and… Wikipedia, he says.

“Many entries are described in detail, others less so. This probably provides a good overview of what our society knows, what occupies it and to what extent,” said Grass in the release.

It’s ridiculously cool to think that even if we do wipe ourselves off the face of the Earth, our civilisation might still live on for millennia to come in the form of Wikipedia pages and Facebook updates.

We really are (almost) infinite. 


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#127 crangs

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Posted 17 February 2015 - 06:46 AM

 

A DNA hard drive has been built that can store data for 1 MILLION years

Scientists have found a way to preserve the world's data for millions of years, by storing it on a tiny strand of DNA preserved in glass.

FIONA MACDONALD   17 FEB 2015
facebook_34.png11.ktwitter_34.png189email_34.png
 
 

When you think of humanity’s legacy, the most powerful message for us to leave behind for future civilisations would surely be our billions of terabytes of data. But right now the hard drives and discs that we use to store all this information are frustratingly vulnerable, and unlikely to survive more than a couple of hundred years.

Fortunately scientists have built a DNA time capsule that's capable of safely preserving all of our data for more than a million years. And we’re kind of freaking out over how huge the implications are. 

 

Researchers already knew that DNA was ideal for data storage. In theory, just 1 gram of DNA is capable of holding 455 exabytes, which is the equivalent of one billion gigabytes, and more than enough space to store all of Google, Facebook and pretty much everyone else's data.

Storing information on DNA is also surprisingly simple - researchers just need to program the A and C base pairs of DNA as a binary '0', and the T and G as a '1'. But the researchers, led by Robert Grass from ETH Zürich in Switzerland, wanted to find out just how long this data would last.

DNA can definitely be durable - in 2013 scientists managed to sequence genetic code from 700,000-year-old horse bones - but it has to be preserved in pretty specific conditions, otherwise it can change and break down as it's exposed to the environment. So Glass's team decided to try to replicate a fossil, to see if it would help them create a long-lasting DNA hard drive.

"Similar to these bones, we wanted to protect the information-bearing DNA with a synthetic 'fossil' shell," explained Grass in a press release.

In order to do that, the team encoded Switzerland’s Federal Charter of 1921 andThe Methods of Mechanical Theorems by Archimedes onto a DNA strand - a total of 83 kilobytes of data. They then encapsulated the DNA into tiny glass spheres, which were around 150 nanometres in diameter. 

The researchers compared these glass spheres against other packaging methods by exposing them to temperatures of between 60 and 70 degrees Celsius - conditions that replicated the chemical degradation that would usually occur over hundreds of years, all crammed into a few destructive weeks.

They found that even after this sped-up degradation process, the DNA inside the glass spheres could easily be extracted using a fluoride solution, and the data on it could still be read. In fact, these glass casings seem to work much like fossilised bones.

Based on their results, which have been published in Angewandte Chemie, the team predicts that data stored on DNA could survive over a million years if it was stored in temperatures below -18 degrees Celsius, for example, in a facility like theSvalbard Global Seed Vault, which is also known as the ‘Doomsday Vault’. They say it could last 2,000 years if stored somewhere less secure at 10 degrees Celsius - a similar average temperature to central Europe.

The tricky part of this whole process is that the data stored in DNA needs to be read properly in order for future civilisations to be able to access it. And despite advances in sequencing technology, errors still arise from DNA sequencing.

The team overcame this by embedding a method for correcting any errors within the glass spheres, based on the Reed-Solomon Codes, which help researchers transmit data over long distances. Basically, additional information is attached to the actual data, to help people read it on the other end.

This worked so well that even after the test DNA had been kept in scorching and degrading conditions for a month, the team could still read Switzerland’s Federal Charter and Archimedes’ wise words at the end of the study.

The other major problem, which is not so easy to overcome, is the fact that storing information on DNA is still extremely expensive - it cost around US$1,500 just to encode the 83 kilobytes of data used in this study. Hopefully this cost will go down as we get better at writing information onto DNA. Rsearchers out there are already storing books onto DNA, and the band OK Go are also writing their new album into genetic information.

The question is, what would Grass store, now that he’s developed this mind-blowing time capsule? The documents in Unesco’s Memory of the World Programme, and… Wikipedia, he says.

“Many entries are described in detail, others less so. This probably provides a good overview of what our society knows, what occupies it and to what extent,” said Grass in the release.

It’s ridiculously cool to think that even if we do wipe ourselves off the face of the Earth, our civilisation might still live on for millennia to come in the form of Wikipedia pages and Facebook updates.

We really are (almost) infinite. 

 

Got a boss new hard drive for my computer if I can get that glass storage...

 

0YDr0Mj.gif


Edited by crangs, 17 February 2015 - 06:48 AM.

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#128 TigerChamp

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Posted 18 February 2015 - 02:51 AM

Scientists discover the Earth’s strongest substance — in a snail’s tooth

 

WHAT’S the strongest natural material known to man? Spider webs? Diamonds? Geckos’ toes? Nope. You’ll never guess what it is.

It’s a limpet’s tooth.

Researchers from the University of Portsmouth have found that the aquatic ‘snails’ have teeth with a crystalline structure so strong it should be copied to improve our cars, aircraft, boats and space craft.

“Until now we thought that spider silk was the strongest biological material because of its super-strength and potential applications in everything from bulletproof vests to computer electronics,” Professor Asa Barber says in a statement released overnight.

“But now we have discovered that limpet teeth exhibit a strength that is potentially higher.”

The secret appears to be in a mineral substance known as goethite.

This crystal forms in the limpet as it grows, enabling the conical-shelled critter to strip algae from rocks.

“Limpets need high strength teeth to rasp over rock surfaces and remove algae for feeding when the tide is in,” Professor Barber says.

To achieve this, the diminutive sea snail has developed teeth with a near perfect crystalline structure.

“We discovered that the fibres of goethite are just the right size to make up a resilient composite structure,” Professor Barbers says.

By that he means the toughest substance yet found.

Now we know about it, the fibrous tangle inside the teeth can likely be artificially reproduced.

The results of his study have been published in the Royal Society journal Interface

It took a complex and very new process to measure the limpet tooth’s strength: Breaking it.

But that’s not easy to do when the tooth is so tiny — at least 100 times thinner than a human hair.

“The whole tooth is slightly less than a millimetre long but is curved, so the strength is dependent on both the shape of the tooth and the material,” he said.

So a tiny nick had to be taken out of one side to weaken the structure enough for it to crack.

The results of his team’s investigations were surprising.

“Generally a big structure has lots of flaws and can break more easily than a smaller structure, which has fewer flaws and is stronger,” he says. “The problem is that most structures have to be fairly big so they’re weaker than we would like.

“Limpet teeth break this rule as their strength is the same no matter what the size.”

634751-93d80c6e-b6ef-11e4-b41b-d516c533d

601575-7a4d9e48-b6f0-11e4-b41b-d516c533d

601601-d7277756-b6f0-11e4-b41b-d516c533d

http://www.news.com....b-1227223601392


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#129 crangs

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Posted 18 February 2015 - 03:07 AM

Scientists discover the Earth’s strongest substance — in a snail’s tooth

 

WHAT’S the strongest natural material known to man? Spider webs? Diamonds? Geckos’ toes? Nope. You’ll never guess what it is.

It’s a limpet’s tooth.

Researchers from the University of Portsmouth have found that the aquatic ‘snails’ have teeth with a crystalline structure so strong it should be copied to improve our cars, aircraft, boats and space craft.

“Until now we thought that spider silk was the strongest biological material because of its super-strength and potential applications in everything from bulletproof vests to computer electronics,” Professor Asa Barber says in a statement released overnight.

“But now we have discovered that limpet teeth exhibit a strength that is potentially higher.”

The secret appears to be in a mineral substance known as goethite.

This crystal forms in the limpet as it grows, enabling the conical-shelled critter to strip algae from rocks.

“Limpets need high strength teeth to rasp over rock surfaces and remove algae for feeding when the tide is in,” Professor Barber says.

To achieve this, the diminutive sea snail has developed teeth with a near perfect crystalline structure.

“We discovered that the fibres of goethite are just the right size to make up a resilient composite structure,” Professor Barbers says.

By that he means the toughest substance yet found.

Now we know about it, the fibrous tangle inside the teeth can likely be artificially reproduced.

The results of his study have been published in the Royal Society journal Interface

It took a complex and very new process to measure the limpet tooth’s strength: Breaking it.

But that’s not easy to do when the tooth is so tiny — at least 100 times thinner than a human hair.

“The whole tooth is slightly less than a millimetre long but is curved, so the strength is dependent on both the shape of the tooth and the material,” he said.

So a tiny nick had to be taken out of one side to weaken the structure enough for it to crack.

The results of his team’s investigations were surprising.

“Generally a big structure has lots of flaws and can break more easily than a smaller structure, which has fewer flaws and is stronger,” he says. “The problem is that most structures have to be fairly big so they’re weaker than we would like.

“Limpet teeth break this rule as their strength is the same no matter what the size.”

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http://www.news.com....b-1227223601392

That's pretty cool.  Maybe Overeem should start eating some limpets or get them implanted into his chin :lol:


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#130 TigerChamp

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Posted 22 February 2015 - 12:02 AM


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#131 chons

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Posted 03 March 2015 - 07:23 PM


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#132 chons

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Posted 03 March 2015 - 07:26 PM

Investigating Particle Clumping in Microgravity

NASA Astronauts Stanley Love and Donald Pettit and NASA researcher Scott Messenger used the International Space Station's microgravity environment to run experiments on clumping of solid particles. The results have interesting relevance to the studies of how aggregates formed in the solar nebula and the ultimate growth of asteroids and planets. 
 

Pettit.ISS.salt.aggregation.jpg

Pettit conducted the experiments in microgravity, in off-duty time during three space missions, using materials at hand (salt, sugar, coffee) as well as chondrules(1.7 mm average diameter) from the meteorite Bjurböle [Data link from the Meteoritical Bulletin], rock fragments (4-7 mm in size) crushed from the meteorites Allende [Data link from the Meteoritical Bulletin] and Allan Hills A76009 [Data link from the Meteoritical Bulletin], acrylic and glass beads, and mixtures of particle types. 
 

Love.etal.2014.fig3.jpg

In every trial using salt, sugar, and coffee, the majority of particles clumped spontaneously after a few seconds of thorough shaking. The clumps survived impacts with the wall of the bag, but broke under stronger shaking. On the other hand, the Bjurböle chondrules exhibited very little cohesion. The results showed no simple relationship between the speed and strength of aggregation with the variables of number density, composition, particle shape, or surface roughness. Trials using meteorite fragments or acrylic beads or glass beads did not clump at all. Mixtures of sugar with meteorite fragments and beads formed clumps dominated by sugar with incidental capture of some of the other materials. The preferential clumping of these mixtures demonstrated that particles that do not readily cluster together can still be incorportated into aggregates with other, more cohesive, materials. While no one assumes the results of these informal experiments can be applied to the whole story of planet formation, they are eye-opening as to what they reveal about the actions of millimeter-sized particles in microgravity. Modeling the growth of asteroids and planets in a real nebula, as this and previous research studies show, requires consideration of epic details such as cosmic rays, gas pressure, gas turbulence, temperature, electrical charging, and such things beyond the scope of Saturday morning science experiments. 

The informal experiments described by Love, Pettit, and Messenger support the electrostatic model for particle aggregation in the solar nebula and serve as a spring board for more sophisticated future investigations of the aggregate behavior of millimeter- and submillimeter-sized particles in microgravity. 
 

pdficon_small.gif (pdf version) 

See Reference:
·   Love, S. G., Pettit, D. R., and Messenger, S. R. (2014) Particle Aggregation in Microgravity: Informal Experiments on the International Space Station, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 49(5), p. 732-739, doi: 10.1111/maps.12286. [ abstract ] 

See also:
·   Don Pettit–Space Chronicles 

·   Building Planets in Plastic Bags by David Tytell, Sky & Telescope.

Written by Linda Martel, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, for PSRD


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#133 Hellequin

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Posted 11 March 2015 - 09:02 AM


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#134 Hellequin

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Posted 11 March 2015 - 09:06 AM


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#135 Pigs-On-The-Wing

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Posted 14 March 2015 - 05:37 AM

I feel like we're so close to finding life in our solar system outside of earth....

 

Nasa now claiming they have evidence that Europa not only contains oceans of water....it has more water than earth does :

 

 OnPVJ8A.gif


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#136 Sir_Wesley_of_Wells

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Posted 14 March 2015 - 08:55 AM

I feel like we're so close to finding life in our solar system outside of earth....

 

Nasa now claiming they have evidence that Europa not only contains oceans of water....it has more water than earth does :

 

 OnPVJ8A.gif

I saw that too. That sort of thing fascinates me.


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#137 GN_FDU

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Posted 14 March 2015 - 09:09 AM

There's a little nerdgin in every man.

Two nerdgin's inside Gabri. :lol:



#138 TigerChamp

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Posted 18 March 2015 - 12:38 AM

This is a bit of interactive fun

 

http://www.bbc.com/f...arth/index.html


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#139 amunera

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Posted 18 March 2015 - 02:33 AM

This is a bit of interactive fun

 

http://www.bbc.com/f...arth/index.html

 

Thanks for making me spend like 30 mins of work on that :P


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#140 chons

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Posted 22 March 2015 - 11:03 AM

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#141 TigerChamp

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 02:50 AM


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#142 crangs

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:01 AM

I was reading an article on this recently.  It's weird but understandable how the mercator came about


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#143 TigerChamp

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:03 AM


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#144 TigerChamp

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:05 AM

I was reading an article on this recently.  It's weird but understandable how the mercator came about

Yeah as a nautical map it works really well, but as a true representation of geographical size its totally inaccurate, yet its the most commonly accepted map lol very interesting


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#145 Bubba_Sparks

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:07 AM

 

 

I was reading an article on this recently.  It's weird but understandable how the mercator came about

Lads, there is a whole thread dedicated to this topic!!

 

http://forums.ufcfig...w-of-the-world/


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England may have invented the game but Australia perfected it. Long may The Ashes stay in their rightful home, GOATstraya


#146 crangs

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:11 AM

Lads, there is a whole thread dedicated to this topic!!

 

http://forums.ufcfig...w-of-the-world/

lol, TC was all up in that bish, too :lol:


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#147 Bubba_Sparks

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:13 AM

lol, TC was all up in that bish, too :lol:

Back in those days all my quality threads were derailed by people denying my authenticity


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#148 TigerChamp

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:18 AM

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#149 TigerChamp

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:38 AM

this is insane

 


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#150 crangs

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Posted 23 March 2015 - 03:43 AM

this is insane

 

I'm seeing loads of uses for that ****.  


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